Publications

Of cultures and moral circles: Traveller as a tool for intercultural sensitivity training (Poster)

Presented at: The 5th International Summer School in Affective Sciences organized by the Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, July 5-13, 2013, in Bossey, Switzerland

Authors: Aleksandra Swiderska, Eva G. Krumhuber, Arvid Kappas,  Nick Degens, Gert Jan Hofstede

Download the full PDF here

When agents meet: empathy, moral circle, ritual, and culture

In: Workshop on Emotional and Empathic Agents at the 11th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2012)

Authors: Nick Degens, Gert Jan Hofstede, John McBreen, Adrie Beulens, Samuel Mascarenhas, Nuno Ferreira, Ana Paiva & Frank Dignum

Abstract: Creating agents that are capable of emulating the same kind of socio-cultural dynamics found in human interaction remains one of the hardest challenges of artificial intelligence. This problem becomes particularly important when considering embodied agents that are meant to interact with humans in a believable and empathic manner.

We propose a list of basic requirements for these agents to be capable of such behaviour and we introduce a model of the social world intended for implementation in affective agent architectures. In our framework culture alters agents’ social relationships rather than directly determining actions, allowing for a deeper representation of empathy.

Citation: Degens, N., Hofstede, G.J., McBreen, J., Beulens, A., Mascarenhas, S., Ferreira, N., Paiva, A. & Dignum, F. (2012)  When agents meet: empathy, moral circle, ritual, and culture.  Workshop on Emotional and Empathic Agents at the 11th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2012), June, 4–8, 2012, Valencia, Spain.

Download Full PDF

 

Exploring Children’s ‘Indexical Encounter’ with Real and Digitised Archive Photographs Using Tablet and Large Flat Screen Technologies

In: The 11th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 2012.

Authors: Susan Jones, Lynne Hall & Jeanette Hilton.

Abstract: The indexical properties of real photographs impart a compelling link with previous generations and past events in social and economic history.  However, the fragility of photographic material, means that rare photographs are consigned to the archive and in the context of children’s heritage education, which relies heavily on photographic resources, this materiality of the photograph is inevitably transformed reducing the quality of the learning experience.  Ongoing innovations in multi-touch small screen technology are opening up new opportunities in the context of heritage education which give users thin and lightweight mobile hand held devices which are fingertip driven and ideal for examining and manipulating images.  Intuitively, the iPad has some commendable design features, particularly for children, but just how these impact upon children’s experiences and responses to viewing archive images has yet to be fully investigated.

This work sets out to explore the use of the iPad within the context of a Victorian classroom experience at the Old Donnison School Museum in the Sunderland Heritage Quarter, a regeneration project in the North East of England. In this paper we review the broad outcomes of this pilot into the use of the iPad in heritage education and draw some conclusions as to the use of this versatile technology for the effective deployment of the digital archive for children.

Citation: Jones, S.J., Hall, L., Hilton, J. (2012) Exploring Children’s ‘Indexical Encounter’ with Real and Digitised Archive Photographs Using Tablet and Large Flat Screen Technologies.  The 11th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 12-15th June 2012, Bremen, Germany.

Download full PDF here

Scaffolding the Story Creation Process

In: CSEDU, 2012

Authors: Marc Hall, Lynne Hall, John Hodgson, Colette Hume, Lynne Humphries

Abstract: Comic books provide an appropriate and structured context for education and personal or peer reflection. In this paper we discuss the benefits of comic books and technology in a pedagogical context, including the mechanism of scaffolding and how this interaction impacts upon the child’s environment. Our studies into the educational benefits of comic books have lead to the development of an interactive comic book application. The application is being developed for the purpose of narrative inquiry through the creation and completion of a story scaffold. The analysis of the data will help evaluate the child’s social and cultural interaction with the story

Citation: Hall, M., Hall, L., Hodgson, J., Hume, C., & Humphries, L. (2012). Scaffolding the Story Creation Process.  Conference on Computer Supported Education.

Search Engine Metrics to Discover Terms Characteristic of a Database of Images with Captions

In: TIA, November 2011

Authors: Micheal Oakes, Lynne Hall

Abstract: In this paper we make use of search engine metrics to discover the terms, which are most typical of a web-based image collection, as opposed to those terms used by search engines in general. Knowing which terms are typical of a cultural data collection is of interest in itself, and these terms can also be used to draw additional visitors to these websites through search engine optimization (SEO). To find terms suitable for paid placements (Adwords), the metric we propose is relative cost per click (RCPC), the ratio between Google’s Cost-per-Click (CPC) and the frequency of the term in the captions of the images in the collection. To find terms suitable for metadata to improve the matches between user queries and the image website, we propose a variant of the term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf.idf) metric commonly used in information retrieval.

Citation: Oakes, M., & Hall, L. (2011). Search Engine Metrics to Discover Terms Characteristic of a Database of Images with Captions. Ninth International Conference on Intelliegent Virtual Agents.

Download full PDF here.

Full Body Gestures enhancing a Game Book for Interactive Story Telling

In: ICIDS, November 2011.

Authors: Felix Kistler, Dominik Sollfrank, Nikolaus Bee, and Elisabeth André.

Abstract: Game Books can offer a well-written, but non-linear story, as readers always have to decide, how to continue after reading a text passage. It seems very logical to adopt such a book to investigate interaction paradigms for an interactive storytelling scenario. Nevertheless, it is not easy to keep the player motivated during a long-winded narrated story until the next point of intervention is reached. In this paper we tested different methods of implementing the decision process in such a scenario using speech input and tested it with 26 participants during a two player scenario. This revealed that with an omitted on-screen prompt the application was less easy to use, but caused considerably more user interaction. We further added additional interactivity with so-called Quick Time Events (QTEs). In these events, the player has a limited amount of time to perform a specific action after a corresponding prompt appears on screen. Different versions of QTEs were implemented using Full Body Tracking with Microsoft Kinect, and were tested with another 18 participants during a two player scenario. We found that Full Body Gestures were easier to perform and, in general, preferred to controlling a cursor with one hand and hitting buttons with it.

Citation: Kistler, F., Sollfrank, D., Bee, N., & André, E. (2011). Full Body Gestures Enhancing a Game Book for Interactive Story Telling. In M. Si, D. Thue, E. Andre, J. Lester, J. Tanenbaum, & V. Zammitto (Eds.), Interactive Storytelling 4th International Conference on International Digital Storytelling (pp. 207-218). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Download full PDF here.

Investigating the use of the ipad in heritage education for children: impact of technology on the ‘history detective’ in a victorian classroom role play activity

Authors: Susan Jones, Lynne Hall, Janette Hilton, Ruth Aylett, Marc Hall,Peter Smith.

Abstract: The indexical properties of real photographs impart a compelling link with previous generations and past events in social and economic history.  However, the fragility of photographic material, means that rare photographs are consigned to the archive and in the context of childrens’ heritage education, which relies heavily on photographic resources, this materiality of the photograph is inevitably transformed reducing the quality of the learning experience. Ongoing innovations in multi-touch small screen technology are opening up new opportunities in the context of heritage education which give users thin and lightweight mobile hand held devices which are fingertip driven and ideal for examining and manipulating images.  Intuitively, the iPad has some commendable design features, particularly for children, but just how these impact upon childrens’ experiences and responses to viewing archive images has yet to be fully investigated.

This work sets out to explore the use of the iPad within the context of a Victorian classroom experience at the Old Donnison School Museum in the Sunderland Heritage Quarter, a regeneration project in the North East of England. The paper reviews the broad outcomes of this pilot into the use of the iPad in heritage education and draws some conclusions as to the use of this versatile technology for the effective deployment of the digital archive for children.

Citation: Jones, S., Hall, L., Hilton, J., Aylett, R., Hall, M., Smith, P. (2011). Investigating the use of the ipad in heritage education for children: impact of technology on the ‘history detective’ in a victorian classroom role play activity.  4th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovations. (pp. 1262-1271). Madrid, Spain.

Why Numbers, Invites and Visits are not Enough: Evaluating the User Experience in Social Eco-Systems

In: SOTICS, October 2011.

Authors: Lynne Hall and Colette Hume.

Abstract: Social eco-systems are often evaluated through quantitative data that is automatically logged and analysed. However, where the user’s experience of social eco-systems is evaluated, more explicit intervention approaches are typical, with questionnaires, focus groups and user testing widely used, directly asking the user about their experience. User experience evaluation thus ruptures the social eco-system, occurring as a separate, discrete activity outside of that system.  In this paper, we propose that evaluation should be part of the social eco-system adding value to the user experience. We outline an evaluation approach that has been applied within games-based learning environments where the evaluation is seamlessly embedded. We briefly outline our approach to generating and analysing data highlighting its potential for social eco-system evaluation.

Citation: Hall, L., & Hume, C. (2011). Why Numbers , Invites and Visits are not Enough : Evaluating the User Experience in Social Eco-Systems. SOTICS, (pp. 8-13) Barcelona, Spain.

Download full PDF here.

To Our Emotions, with Love: How Affective Should Affective Computing Be?

In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, October 2011.

Author: Arvid Kappas.

“Affective computing” has become the rallying call for a heterogeneous group of researchers that, among other goals, tries to improve the interaction of humans and machines via the development of affective and multimodal intelligent systems. This development appears…”

Download from Springerlink here.

 

Repurposing an Old Game for an International World

In: Simulation & Gaming, September 2011.

Authors: Gert Jan Hofstede and Elizabeth J. Tipton Murff.

Abstract: The game SO LONG SUCKER was designed in the United States in 1964 with the aim of showing how potentially unethical behaviour necessary for winning was inherent in the game’s incentive structure. Sessions with East Asian participants, however, led to very different game dynamics in which collaborative rather than antagonistic behaviours occurred. This confirms that the course of a simulation game run is determined by more than its rules and roles. The participants’ personalities, skills, personal histories, and preexisting relationships also play a role. Furthermore, the unwritten rules of social behaviour that the participants have been socialised into, their culture, is of crucial importance. This article uses experiences with a mix of U.S. and Taiwanese participants to discuss the interaction of written and unwritten rules in determining game dynamics. The suitability for international classroom use of this game, and others, as a vehicle for drawing lessons about culture is argued.

Citation: Hofstede, G. J., & Tipton Murff, E. J. (2011). Repurposing an Old Game for an International World. Simulation and Gaming, doi:10.1177/1046878110388250

Download full PDF here

Integration and Evaluation of Prototypical Culture-related Differences

In: CMVC, September 2011.

Authors: Birgit Endrass, Nick Degens, Gert Jan Hofstede, Elisabeth Andre, John Hodgson, Samuel Mascarenhas, Gregor Mehlmann, Ana Paiva, Christopher Ritter and Aleksandra Swiderska.

Abstract: The integration of culture into the behavioural models of virtual characters requires knowledge from very different disciplines such as sociology and computer science. If culture-related behavioural differences are integrated into a virtual character system, users do not necessarily understand the intent of such a system. In this paper, we present a prototype that tries to integrate the masculinity dimension of culture with prototypical differences in verbal and nonverbal behaviour. In a preliminary evaluation study, we investigated how these differences are judged by human observers with different cultural backgrounds.

Citation: Endrass, B., Degens, N., Hofstede, G. J., Andr, E., Mascarenhas, S., Mehlmann, G., & Paiva, A. (2011). Integration and Evaluation of Prototypical Culture-related Differences. Culturally Motivated Virtual Characters (pp. 1-9). Springer.

Download full PDF here.

Usage and Recognition of Finger Orientation for Multi-Touch Tabletop Interaction

In: INTERACT, September 2011.

Authors: Chi Tai Dang, and Elisabeth André.

Abstract: Building on the observation that finger orientation is an inherent part of human’s interaction in the real world, exploiting finger orientation for multitouch tabletop interaction would facilitate more natural interaction techniques. We motivate this by means of examples where the finger orientation improves or enriches interaction. Afterwards, we present a simple and fast approach to detect the finger orientation reliably for multi-touch tabletop interaction. The steps involved are computationally cheap and therefore suit the needs of tracking software operating under time-critical conditions. We show that the presented approach enables the detection of finger orientation also for fingers that touch the tabletop surface only slightly. Further, recognition rates on real data gained from the camera within a multi-touch tabletop are presented in order to give a measure for the precision and reliability of the presented approach.

Citation: Dang, C. T., & André, E. (2011). Usage and Recognition of Finger Orientation for Multi-Touch Tabletop Interaction. HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION – INTERACT 20116948, 409-426.

Download full PDF here.

Culture-related Topic Selection in Small Talk Conversations across Germany and Japan

In: IVA, September 2011.

Authors: Birgit Endrass, Yukiko Nakano, A a Akhter Lipi, Matthias Rehm and Elisabeth André.

Abstract: Small talk can be used in order to build a positive relationship towards a virtual character. However the choice of topics in a conversation can be dependent on social background. In this paper, we explore culture-related differences in small talk for the German and Japanese cultures. Based on findings from the literature and verified by a corpus analysis, we integrated prototypical German and Japanese small talk conversations into a multiagent system. In evaluation studies conducted in the two target cultures, we investigated whether participants prefer agent dialogs that were designed to reflect their own cultural background.

Citation: Endrass, B., Nakano, Y., Lipi, A. A., Rehm, M., & Andr, E. (2011). Culture-related Topic Selection in Small Talk Conversations across Germany and Japan. Small, (pp. 1-13). Springer.

Download full PDF here.

Visualising the Cyberbully – Analysing Teenagers Expressive Drawings

In: IADIS, July 2011.

Authors:  Susan J. Jones, Lynne Hall, Sue Kerridge, Sarah Woods, and Marc Hall.

Abstract: Through the Internet and mobile technologies teenagers immerse themselves in networks of social relationships that often provide unhindered terrain for the cyberbully. Encouraging teenagers to verbalise about relationships with people they cannot see face to face is particularly problematic. Here, we used the generation of visual imagery during a role play activity with over 400 11 to 18 year olds to gain a greater understanding of cyberbullying. Teenagers were asked to carry out a web design activity about cyberbullying; this provided an appropriate context in which they could generate visual data and yielded 129 storyboards. Participants were in role as designers throughout and very open, fluid and productive in the task. Visual analysis highlighted teenagers’s reliance on their understanding of physical bullying to portray the cyberbully and identified more concrete manifestations of the cyberbullying threat. The use of a drawing approach with teenagers proved highly productive and the value of tapping into teenagers sophisticated visual language to help them express with great clarity the things that they find difficult to talk about is discussed.

Citation: Jones, S., Hall, L., Kerridge, S., & Woods, S. (2011). Visualising the Cyberbully Analysing Teenagers’ Expressive Drawings. IADIS International Conference e-Society, (pp. 117-124).

Download full PDF here.

Cultural Difference in Nonverbal Behaviors in Negotiation Conversations: Towards a Model for Culture-adapted Conversational Agents

In: HCII, July 2011.

Authors: Fumie Nori, Afia Akhter Lipi, Yukiko Nakano.

Abstract: As the basis of generating nonverbal expressions in animated agents, this paper proposes factors that account for cultural difference in nonverbal behaviors in negotiation interaction. First, we introduce theories of negotiation and cultural characteristics. Then, our analysis of human interaction in negotiation conversations in CUBE-G corpus is described. Finally, by integrating cultural and negotiation parameters with empirical data obtained in the corpus analysis, we design a parameterized network model that generates culture specific nonverbal expressions in negotiation conversations.

Citation: F. Nori, A.A. Lipi,  and Y.I. Nakano,  ”Cultural Difference in Nonverbal Behaviors in Negotiation Conversations: Towards a Model for Culture-Adapted Conversational Agents”,  in Proc. HCI (5), 2011, pp.410-419.

Download full PDF here.

Culture-related differences in aspects of behaviour for virtual characters across Germany and Japan

In: AAMAS, May 2011.

Authors: Birgit Endrass, Elisabeth Andr, Matthias Reh,  Afia Akter Lipi and Yukiko Nakan.

Abstract: Integrating culture as a parameter into the behavioural models of virtual characters to simulate cultural differences is becoming more and more popular. But do these diff erences a ffect the user’s perception? In the work described in this paper, we integrated aspects of non-verbal behaviour as well as communication management behaviour into the behavioural models of virtual characters for the two cultures of Germany and Japan in order to find out which of these aspects aff ect human observers of the target cultures. We give a literature review pointing out the expected differences in these two cultures and describe the analysis of a multi modal corpus including video recordings of German and Japanese inter-locutors. After integrating our findings into a demonstrator featuring a German and a Japanese scenario, we presented the virtual scenarios to human observers of the two target cultures in an evaluation study.

Citation: Endrass, B., Aalborg, D., Rehm, M., & Augsburg, D. (2011). Culture-related differences in aspects of behavior for virtual characters across Germany and Japan. (K. Tumer, P. Yolum, L. Sonenberg, & P. Stone, Eds.)Evaluation, (Section 2), 441-448. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (IFAAMAS).

Download full PDF  here.

Games-based Learning for Exploring Cultural Conflict

In: AISB, April 2011.

Authors: Lynne Hall, Syaheerah Lutfi, Asad Nazir, John Hodgson, Marc Hall, Christopher Ritter, Susan Jones, Ruth Aylett, Samuel Mascarenhas, Bridget Cooper and Ana Paiva.

Abstract: In this paper we discuss the early stage design of MIXER, a technology-enhanced educational application focused at supporting children in learning about cultural conflict, achieved through the use of a game with an effective embodied AI agent. MIXER is being developed re-using existing technology applied to a different context and purpose with the aim of creating an educational and enjoyable experience for 9-11 year-olds. This paper outlines MIXER’s underpinning technology and theory. It presents early stage design and development, highlighting current research directions.

Citation: Hall, L., Lutfi, S., Nazir, A., Hodgson, J., Hall, M., Ritter, C., Jones, S., Mascarenhas, S., Cooper, B., Paiva, A.,  & Aylett, R. Game Based Learning for Exploring Cultural Conflict, AISB, York, UK 2011

Download full PDF here.

Computational Modelling of Uncertainty Avoidance in Consumer Behaviour

In: IJRRCS, February 2011.

Authors: Omid Roozmand, Nasser Ghasem-Aghaee, Mohammad Ali Nematbakhsh, Ahmad Baraani and Gert Jan Hofstede.

Abstract: Human purchasing behaviour is affected by many influential factors. Culture at macro-level and personality at microlevel influence consumer purchasing behaviour. People of different cultures tend to accept the values of their own group and consequently have different purchasing behaviour. Also, people in the same culture have some differences in their purchases which can be described by their personal characteristics. Therefore, this paper studies Uncertainty Avoidance dimension of Hofstede culture model in consumer behaviour as well as four personality traits. The consumer model includes three important module including perception, evaluation of the alternatives and post-purchase. Our experimental results show that people of high uncertainty avoidance tend to purchase the high quality products as well as famous brands to reduce the risk of their purchases. On the other hand, people in high uncertainty tolerant culture tend to purchase the new products. The paper discusses about the validity of the proposed model based on empirical data.

Citation: Roozmand, O., Ghasem-aghaee, N., Nematbakhsh, M. A., Baraani, A., & Jan, G. (2011). Computational Modeling of Uncertainty Avoidance in Consumer Behavior. Networks, (pp. 18-26).

Download full PDF here

Surface-Poker: Multi modality in Tabletop Games

In: ITS’, November 2010.

Authors: Chi Tai Dang, and Elisabeth André.

Abstract: Multimodal interaction and face-to-face communication between players are aspects of traditional board games which contribute to their popularity. Such aspects are also typical of digital tabletop games. But in addition to that, digital systems allow for a higher level of multi-modality through utilising novel interaction devices or physiological input data.  In this paper, we describe a multimodal tabletop Poker game which makes use of both: additional interaction devices and physiological input data. We outline the tabletop game, the interaction modalities involved, and observations of players.

Citation: Dang, CT., &  André, E. 2010. Surface-poker: multimodality in tabletop games. ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces (ITS ’10). ACM, New York, NY, USA, (pp. 251-252). DOI=10.1145/1936652.1936701

Download full PDF here

Computational Modelling of Culture’s Consequences

In: MABS, May 2010.

Authors: Gert Jan Hofstede, Catholijn M. Jonker,  Tim Verwaart.

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to formalize the influence of culture on the decision functions of agents in social simulations. The key components are (a) a definition of the domain of study in the form of a decision model, (b) knowledge acquisition based on a dimensional theory of culture, resulting in expert validated computational models of the influence of single dimensions, and (c) a technique for integrating the knowledge about individual dimensions. The approach is developed in a line of research that studies the influence of culture on trade processes. Trade is an excellent subject for this study of culture’s consequences because it is ubiquitous, relevant both socially and economically, and often increasingly cross-cultural in a globalized world.

Citation: Hofstede, GJ., Jonker, CM., & Verwaart, T. 2010. Computational modeling of culture’s consequences. In Proceedings of the 11th international conference on Multi-agent-based simulation (MABS’10), Tibor Bosse, Armando Geller, and Catholijn M. Jonker (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, (pp. 136-151).

Download full PDF here.

Linking Norms and Culture

Authors: John Mc Breen, Gennaro Di Tosto, Frank Dignum, Gert Jan Hofstede.

Abstract: The goal of this paper is to propose a method of modelling the evolution of social norms in different cultural settings. We analyse the role of culture in shaping agents’ normative reasoning and hence their behaviour. The general notion of ‘value’ is discussed from the perspective of the BDI framework as a means to represent cultural regularities in social interactions. Culture is described as a system of shared values, which are linked to the Hofstede dimensions of culture. This system is represented by so-called metanorms that define appropriate, culturally-varying, behaviour in different relational contexts. In this way culture affects the possibility of normative changes, in particular the acceptance of policies designed to issue new norms in a society. Throughout the paper a scenario related to the enactment of smoking ban policies in Europe is presented to discuss the evaluation of normative change in specific cultural settings.

Citation: Mc Breen, J., Di Tosto, G., Dignum, F. &  Hofstede, GJ. 2011. Linking Norms and Culture. Proceedings of the 2011 Second International Conference on Culture and Computing (CULTURE-COMPUTING ’11). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, (pp. 9-14).